What is periodontal disease?
Periodontal diseases are mainly the result of infections and inflammation of the gums and bone that surround and support the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums can become swollen and red, and they may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or even fall out.
Periodontitis is caused by bacteria that have been allowed to accumulate on your teeth and gums.
Gum disease starts with plaque, a sticky white substance that coats teeth. It's formed when bacteria in the mouth mixes with saliva and the residue from starchy foods and sugar in your diet.
If plaque isn't properly removed from teeth by brushing and flossing, it can accumulate underneath the gum line and harden into a substance called tartar. Tartar is more difficult to get rid of than plaque and usually requires professional removal by a dental professional.
If tartar is not removed, periodontal disease can develop.
The following are warning signs of periodontal disease:
Bad breath is one of the most well-known gum disease symptoms. That’s because periodontitis involves rotting gum tissue which. The build-up of plaque in those gum pockets can get a little unpleasant smell.
Red or swollen gums
Swelling and soreness is another sign that all is not as it should be with your gums. In general, your gums should be flesh-colored and pain-free
Tender or bleeding gums
If your gums bleed easily when you’re brushing, it’s a sure sign that they’re struggling with at least a case of gingivitis. If this is the only issue, you should find that flossing and paying more attention to brush around your gums solves the problem. But, if bleeding persists, it’s possible that periodontitis has already set in.
When the gums are receding and the jaw bone is losing its density, tenderness in the gums increases. The teeth no longer have enough support from the deteriorating periodontal tissues, so the teeth become loose. This is when chewing or applying pressure to the teeth becomes sore or painful.
When gum disease progresses to the second and third stages, the gums become increasingly tender. Gums start to recede from the teeth, creating pockets between the gums and teeth. These pockets accumulate bacteria, leading to an infection in the gums. As the gums recede, the periodontal tissues that hold the teeth in place start to break down. Teeth become loose as they’re no longer supported by the gums, and bone loss starts to occur.
Inflamed and sore gum tissue may cause sensitivity because of the loss of supporting ligaments which exposes the root surface that leads directly to the nerve of the tooth.
Gums that have pulled away from your teeth
Physical wear of the gums and inflammation of the tissues are the chief reasons for recession.
Any change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
Any change in the fit of partial dentures
Gingivitis can be controlled and treated with good oral hygiene and regular professional cleaning. More severe forms of periodontal disease can also be treated successfully but may require more extensive treatment. Such treatment might include deep cleaning of the tooth root surfaces below the gums, medications prescribed to take by mouth or placed directly under the gums, and sometimes corrective surgery.
To help prevent or control periodontal diseases, it is important to:
1.Brush and floss every day to remove the bacteria that cause gum disease.
2.See a dentist at least once a year for checkups.